CarbonCool® Clinical Studies


Exploring the Potential of CarbonCool® in Rapid Prehospital Cooling for Severe Heat Stroke

Heat stroke is a life-threatening condition that is characterized by body temperatures above 40 °C and central nervous system dysfunction. Immediate cooling is imperative to prevent irreversible cellular damage and improve patient outcomes. Here, we report two cases of heat stroke that highlight the use of a novel cooling suit (CarbonCool®) as a rapid cooling intervention administered in the prehospital setting, primarily focusing on patients with classic heat stroke.


Management of Heatstroke Using the Novel, Reusable, CarbonCool® Suit: A Case Report

Heatstroke is a life-threatening condition with high morbidity and mortality. Prompt recognition and institution of cooling measures has been shown to greatly improve outcomes. This is a case report demonstrating the use of a novel cooling suit (CarbonCool® suit) in a case of exertional heatstroke (EHS). The CarbonCool® suit is a half-body suit with cooling pads (MPadTM) that are filled with a graphite water solution found to be 15 times more thermally conductive than ice. In this case report, a previously well 31-year-old male presented to the Emergency Department (ED) with EHS, subsequently requiring intubation. The CarbonCool® suit was used to reduce his core (rectal) temperature from 41 to 38.7 °C in two hours. Patient’s core temperature subsequently normalized to 37 °C and he was discharged well and neurologically intact. The case report demonstrates that the suit can be easily worn and secured in place, while resuscitative measures are ongoing. This reduces the need for constant monitoring and replacement of ice packs, hence serving as a convenient alternative to ice packs for initial management of patients with EHS. While alternative cooling methods such as powered cooling devices may be utilized, these devices are often only available in the intensive care unit, with significantly higher operative costs. Use of the CarbonCool® suit as an adjunct to other cooling methods may be a simple solution for rapid initiation of cooling in the patient with heatstroke.


Safety and Efficacy of CarbonCool Half-Body Vest for HAZMAT Decontamination Crews Wearing Personal Protective Equipment: A Pilot Study

Personal protective equipment (PPE) are essential for medical personnel responding to hazardous materials (HAZMAT) incidents. However, their impermeable design causes increased physiological strain and reduced thermoregulation, limiting work times and causing heat-related illnesses (HRI). Use of wearable cooling devices slow heat accumulation and have been shown to reduce thermal and cardiovascular strain in such situations.


Novel wearable cooling device for early initiation of targeted temperature management in the Emergency Department

Targeted temperature management (TTM) is an important component of post-cardiac arrest care. Studies have suggested that cooling is associated with better outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cooling efficacy of a protocol including a novel cooling device in the Emergency Department.


A pilot study to Evaluate the Potential of Using a CarbonCool Vest in Reduction of Heat Stress among First Responders Donned in CLD500 Decontamination Suit

This pilot study aims to evaluate the potential of CarbonCool vest in reduction of heat stress among first responders donned in CLD500 decontamination suit while carrying out moderate-intensity functional exercises.


Heat Injury Management in the SAF 

In May 2018, MINDEF commissioned an External Review Panel on Heat Injury Management (hereinafter referred to as “The Panel”) to examine the SAF’s heat injury policies and processes. The Panel was headed by A/PROF MARK LEONG KWOK FAI, Senior Consultant, Department of Emergency Medicine, SGH, who was supported by: A/PROF MARCUS ONG ENG HOCK, Senior Consultant, Department of Emergency Medicine, SGH; A/PROF KELVIN CHEW TAI LOON, Director and Senior Consultant, Changi Sport Medicine Centre, CGH; DR TEOH CHIN SIM, Director and Senior Consultant, Sport Medicine Centre, KTPH; and A/PROF JASON LEE KAI WEI, Programme Director, Human Performance Programme, Defence Medical & Environment Research Institute, DSO National Laboratories.


Preliminary Testing of CarbonCool™ CoolingSystem for HAZMAT Decontamination 

Frontline healthcare staff have to don thick layers of personal protective equipment (PPE) to decontaminate patients for Hazmat operations and training and Long periods in PPE may trigger heat stress or fatigue. A study was conducted to evaluate if the use of the CarbonCool® System with PPE was useful in reducing physiological stress during Hazmat training.



Scalp cooling (SC) is hypothesized to reduce the severity of chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA) via vasoconstriction, limiting the drug uptake to the hair follicle matrixcells. However, no formal studies have been conducted to evaluate whether chemotherapy concentrations in the hair follicles are truly reduced after SC.